Syntax Formats

The 20 syntax formats

SeleniumBase supports 20 different syntax formats (design patterns) for structuring tests. (The first 6 are the most common.)

1. BaseCase direct inheritance

This format is used by most of the examples in the SeleniumBase examples folder. It's a great starting point for anyone learning SeleniumBase, and it follows good object-oriented programming principles. In this format, BaseCase is imported at the top of a Python file, followed by a Python class inheriting BaseCase. Then, any test method defined in that class automatically gains access to SeleniumBase methods, including the setUp() and tearDown() methods that are automatically called to spin up and spin down web browsers at the beginning and end of test methods. Here's an example of that:

from seleniumbase import BaseCase

class MyTestClass(BaseCase):
    def test_demo_site(self):
        self.open("https://seleniumbase.io/demo_page")
        self.type("#myTextInput", "This is Automated")
        self.click("#myButton")
        self.assert_element("tbody#tbodyId")
        self.assert_text("Automation Practice", "h3")
        self.click_link("SeleniumBase Demo Page")
        self.assert_exact_text("Demo Page", "h1")
        self.assert_no_js_errors()

(See examples/test_demo_site.py for the full test.)

2. BaseCase subclass inheritance

There are situations where you may want to customize the setUp and tearDown of your tests. Maybe you want to have all your tests login to a specific web site first, or maybe you want to have your tests report results through an API call depending on whether a test passed or failed. This can be done by creating a subclass of BaseCase and then carefully creating custom setUp() and tearDown() methods that don't overwrite the critical functionality of the default SeleniumBase setUp() and tearDown() methods. Afterwards, your test classes will inherit the subclass of BaseCase with the added functionality, rather than directly inheriting BaseCase itself. Here's an example of that:

from seleniumbase import BaseCase

class BaseTestCase(BaseCase):
    def setUp(self):
        super(BaseTestCase, self).setUp()
        # <<< Run custom setUp() code for tests AFTER the super().setUp() >>>

    def tearDown(self):
        self.save_teardown_screenshot()  # If test fails, or if "--screenshot"
        if self.has_exception():
            # <<< Run custom code if the test failed. >>>
            pass
        else:
            # <<< Run custom code if the test passed. >>>
            pass
        # (Wrap unreliable tearDown() code in a try/except block.)
        # <<< Run custom tearDown() code BEFORE the super().tearDown() >>>
        super(BaseTestCase, self).tearDown()

    def login(self):
        # <<< Placeholder. Add your code here. >>>
        # Reduce duplicate code in tests by having reusable methods like this.
        # If the UI changes, the fix can be applied in one place.
        pass

    def example_method(self):
        # <<< Placeholder. Add your code here. >>>
        pass

class MyTests(BaseTestCase):
    def test_example(self):
        self.login()
        self.example_method()
        self.type("input", "Name")
        self.click("form button")
        ...

(See examples/boilerplates/base_test_case.py for more info.)

3. The sb pytest fixture (no class)

The pytest framework comes with a unique system called fixtures, which replaces import statements at the top of Python files by importing libraries directly into test definitions. More than just being an import, a pytest fixture can also automatically call predefined setUp() and tearDown() methods at the beginning and end of test methods. To work, sb is added as an argument to each test method definition that needs SeleniumBase functionality. This means you no longer need import statements in your Python files to use SeleniumBase. If using other pytest fixtures in your tests, you may need to use the SeleniumBase fixture (instead of BaseCase class inheritance) for compatibility reasons. Here's an example of the sb fixture in a test that does not use Python classes:

def test_sb_fixture_with_no_class(sb):
    sb.open("https://google.com/ncr")
    sb.type('input[title="Search"]', 'SeleniumBase\n')
    sb.click('a[href*="github.com/seleniumbase/SeleniumBase"]')
    sb.click('a[title="seleniumbase"]')

(See the top of examples/test_sb_fixture.py for the test.)

4. The sb pytest fixture (in class)

The sb pytest fixture can also be used inside of a class. There is a slight change to the syntax because that means test methods must also include self in their argument definitions when test methods are defined. (The self argument represents the class object, and is used in every test method that lives inside of a class.) Once again, no import statements are needed in your Python files for this to work. Here's an example of using the sb fixture in a test method that lives inside of a Python class:

class Test_SB_Fixture:
    def test_sb_fixture_inside_class(self, sb):
        sb.open("https://google.com/ncr")
        sb.type('input[title="Search"]', 'SeleniumBase\n')
        sb.click('a[href*="github.com/seleniumbase/SeleniumBase"]')
        sb.click('a[title="examples"]')

(See the bottom of examples/test_sb_fixture.py for the test.)

5. The classic Page Object Model with BaseCase inheritance

With SeleniumBase, you can use Page Objects to break out code from tests, but remember, the self variable (from test methods that inherit BaseCase) contains the driver and all other framework-specific variable definitions. Therefore, that self must be passed as an arg into any outside class method in order to call SeleniumBase methods from there. In the example below, the self variable from the test method is passed into the sb arg of the Page Object class method because the self arg of the Page Object class method is already being used for its own class. Every Python class method definition must include the self as the first arg.

from seleniumbase import BaseCase

class LoginPage:
    def login_to_swag_labs(self, sb, username):
        sb.open("https://www.saucedemo.com")
        sb.type("#user-name", username)
        sb.type("#password", "secret_sauce")
        sb.click('input[type="submit"]')

class MyTests(BaseCase):
    def test_swag_labs_login(self):
        LoginPage().login_to_swag_labs(self, "standard_user")
        self.assert_element("#inventory_container")
        self.assert_element('div:contains("Sauce Labs Backpack")')

(See examples/boilerplates/samples/swag_labs_test.py for the full test.)

6. The classic Page Object Model with the sb pytest fixture

This is similar to the classic Page Object Model with BaseCase inheritance, except that this time we pass the sb pytest fixture from the test into the sb arg of the page object class method, (instead of passing self). Now that you're using sb as a pytest fixture, you no longer need to import BaseCase anywhere in your code. See the example below:

class LoginPage:
    def login_to_swag_labs(self, sb, username):
        sb.open("https://www.saucedemo.com")
        sb.type("#user-name", username)
        sb.type("#password", "secret_sauce")
        sb.click('input[type="submit"]')

class MyTests:
    def test_swag_labs_login(self, sb):
        LoginPage().login_to_swag_labs(sb, "standard_user")
        sb.assert_element("#inventory_container")
        sb.assert_element('div:contains("Sauce Labs Backpack")')

(See examples/boilerplates/samples/sb_swag_test.py for the full test.)

7. Using the request fixture to get the sb fixture (no class)

The pytest request fixture can be used to retrieve other pytest fixtures from within tests, such as the sb fixture. This allows you to have more control over when fixtures get initialized because the fixture no longer needs to be loaded at the very beginning of test methods. This is done by calling request.getfixturevalue('sb') from the test. Here's an example of using the pytest request fixture to load the sb fixture in a test method that does not use Python classes:

def test_request_sb_fixture(request):
    sb = request.getfixturevalue('sb')
    sb.open("https://seleniumbase.io/demo_page")
    sb.assert_text("SeleniumBase", "#myForm h2")
    sb.assert_element("input#myTextInput")
    sb.type("#myTextarea", "This is me")
    sb.click("#myButton")
    sb.tearDown()

(See the top of examples/test_request_sb_fixture.py for the test.)

8. Using the request fixture to get the sb fixture (in class)

The pytest request fixture can also be used to get the sb fixture from inside a Python class. Here's an example of that:

class Test_Request_Fixture:
    def test_request_sb_fixture_in_class(self, request):
        sb = request.getfixturevalue('sb')
        sb.open("https://seleniumbase.io/demo_page")
        sb.assert_element("input#myTextInput")
        sb.type("#myTextarea", "Automated")
        sb.assert_text("This Text is Green", "#pText")
        sb.click("#myButton")
        sb.assert_text("This Text is Purple", "#pText")
        sb.tearDown()

(See the bottom of examples/test_request_sb_fixture.py for the test.)

9. Overriding the SeleniumBase browser launcher

When you want to use SeleniumBase methods, but you want total freedom to control how you spin up your web browsers, this is the format you want. Although SeleniumBase gives you plenty of command-line options to change how your browsers are launched, this format gives you even more control. Here's an example of that:

from selenium import webdriver
from seleniumbase import BaseCase

class OverrideDriverTest(BaseCase):
    def get_new_driver(self, *args, **kwargs):
        """This method overrides get_new_driver() from BaseCase."""
        options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
        options.add_experimental_option("excludeSwitches", ["enable-automation"])
        options.add_experimental_option("useAutomationExtension", False)
        if self.headless:
            options.add_argument("--headless")
        return webdriver.Chrome(options=options)

    def test_simple(self):
        self.open("https://seleniumbase.io/demo_page")
        self.assert_text("Demo Page", "h1")

(From examples/test_override_driver.py)

The above format lets you use selenium-wire to intercept & inspect requests and responses during SeleniumBase tests. Here's how the selenium-wire integration may look:

from seleniumbase import BaseCase
from seleniumwire import webdriver  # the selenium-wire webdriver


class WireTestCase(BaseCase):
    def get_new_driver(self, *args, **kwargs):
        options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
        options.add_experimental_option("excludeSwitches", ["enable-automation"])
        options.add_experimental_option("useAutomationExtension", False)
        return webdriver.Chrome(options=options)

    def test_simple(self):
        self.open("https://seleniumbase.io/demo_page")
        for request in self.driver.requests:
            print(request.url)

10. Using the SeleniumBase browser launcher without BaseCase

One way of running Selenium tests with pure python (as opposed to using pytest or nosetests) is by using this format, which bypasses BaseCase methods while still giving you browser_launcher with its powerful webdriver management software. SeleniumBase includes helper files such as page_actions.py, which may help you get around some of the limitations of bypassing BaseCase. Here's an example:

from seleniumbase import get_driver
from seleniumbase import js_utils
from seleniumbase import page_actions

success = False
try:
    driver = get_driver("chrome", headless=False)
    driver.get("https://seleniumbase.io/apps/calculator")
    page_actions.wait_for_element_visible(driver, "4", "id").click()
    page_actions.wait_for_element_visible(driver, "2", "id").click()
    page_actions.wait_for_text_visible(driver, "42", "output", "id")
    js_utils.highlight_with_js(driver, "#output", 6, "")
    success = True
finally:
    driver.quit()
assert success

(From examples/raw_browser_launcher.py)

The above format can be used as a drop-in replacement for virtually every Python/selenium framework, as it uses the raw driver for handling commands. The get_driver() method simplifies the work of managing drivers and spinning them up with optimal settings. Note that now you'll need to manage the spin-up and spin-down of browsers in tests, which was done automatically in tests that inherit BaseCase (or ones that use the sb pytest fixture). You'll also need to use extra code (as shown above) to make sure you don't leave any browsers hanging after your tests complete.

11. SeleniumBase in Chinese

This format is similar to the English version with BaseCase inheritance, but there's a different import statement, and method names have been translated into Chinese. Here's an example of that:

from seleniumbase.translate.chinese import 硒测试用例

class 我的测试类(硒测试用例):
    def test_例子1(self):
        self.开启("https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/")
        self.断言标题("维基百科,自由的百科全书")
        self.断言元素('a[title="首页"]')
        self.断言文本("新闻动态", "span#新闻动态")
        self.输入文本("#searchInput", "舞龍")
        self.单击("#searchButton")
        self.断言文本("舞龍", "#firstHeading")
        self.断言元素('img[src*="Chinese_draak.jpg"]')
        self.输入文本("#searchInput", "火鍋")
        self.单击("#searchButton")
        self.断言文本("火鍋", "#firstHeading")
        self.断言元素('td:contains("火鍋的各種食材")')
        self.输入文本("#searchInput", "精武英雄")
        self.单击("#searchButton")
        self.断言元素('img[src*="Fist_of_legend.jpg"]')
        self.断言文本("李连杰", 'li a[title="李连杰"]')

(See examples/translations/chinese_test_1.py for the Chinese test.)

12. SeleniumBase in Dutch

This format is similar to the English version with BaseCase inheritance, but there's a different import statement, and method names have been translated into Dutch. Here's an example of that:

from seleniumbase.translate.dutch import Testgeval

class MijnTestklasse(Testgeval):
    def test_voorbeeld_1(self):
        self.openen("https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoofdpagina")
        self.controleren_element('a[title*="hoofdpagina gaan"]')
        self.controleren_tekst("Welkom op Wikipedia", "td.hp-welkom")
        self.typ("#searchInput", "Stroopwafel")
        self.klik("#searchButton")
        self.controleren_tekst("Stroopwafel", "#firstHeading")
        self.controleren_element('img[alt="Stroopwafels"]')
        self.typ("#searchInput", "Rijksmuseum Amsterdam")
        self.klik("#searchButton")
        self.controleren_tekst("Rijksmuseum", "#firstHeading")
        self.controleren_element('img[alt="Het Rijksmuseum"]')
        self.terug()
        self.controleren_ware("Stroopwafel" in self.huidige_url_ophalen())
        self.vooruit()
        self.controleren_ware("Rijksmuseum" in self.huidige_url_ophalen())

(See examples/translations/dutch_test_1.py for the Dutch test.)

13. SeleniumBase in French

This format is similar to the English version with BaseCase inheritance, but there's a different import statement, and method names have been translated into French. Here's an example of that:

from seleniumbase.translate.french import CasDeBase

class MaClasseDeTest(CasDeBase):
    def test_exemple_1(self):
        self.ouvrir("https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/")
        self.vérifier_texte("Wikipédia")
        self.vérifier_élément('[alt="Wikipédia"]')
        self.taper("#searchInput", "Crème brûlée")
        self.cliquer("#searchButton")
        self.vérifier_texte("Crème brûlée", "#firstHeading")
        self.vérifier_élément('img[alt*="Crème brûlée"]')
        self.taper("#searchInput", "Jardin des Tuileries")
        self.cliquer("#searchButton")
        self.vérifier_texte("Jardin des Tuileries", "#firstHeading")
        self.vérifier_élément('img[alt*="Jardin des Tuileries"]')
        self.retour()
        self.vérifier_vrai("brûlée" in self.obtenir_url_actuelle())
        self.en_avant()
        self.vérifier_vrai("Jardin" in self.obtenir_url_actuelle())

(See examples/translations/french_test_1.py for the French test.)

14. SeleniumBase in Italian

This format is similar to the English version with BaseCase inheritance, but there's a different import statement, and method names have been translated into Italian. Here's an example of that:

from seleniumbase.translate.italian import CasoDiProva

class MiaClasseDiTest(CasoDiProva):
    def test_esempio_1(self):
        self.apri("https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/")
        self.verificare_testo("Wikipedia")
        self.verificare_elemento('[title="Lingua italiana"]')
        self.digitare("#searchInput", "Pizza")
        self.fare_clic("#searchButton")
        self.verificare_testo("Pizza", "#firstHeading")
        self.verificare_elemento('img[alt*="pizza"]')
        self.digitare("#searchInput", "Colosseo")
        self.fare_clic("#searchButton")
        self.verificare_testo("Colosseo", "#firstHeading")
        self.verificare_elemento('img[alt*="Colosse"]')
        self.indietro()
        self.verificare_vero("Pizza" in self.ottenere_url_corrente())
        self.avanti()
        self.verificare_vero("Colosseo" in self.ottenere_url_corrente())

(See examples/translations/italian_test_1.py for the Italian test.)

15. SeleniumBase in Japanese

This format is similar to the English version with BaseCase inheritance, but there's a different import statement, and method names have been translated into Japanese. Here's an example of that:

from seleniumbase.translate.japanese import セレニウムテストケース

class 私のテストクラス(セレニウムテストケース):
    def test_例1(self):
        self.を開く("https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/")
        self.テキストを確認する("ウィキペディア")
        self.要素を確認する('[title="メインページに移動する"]')
        self.入力("#searchInput", "アニメ")
        self.クリックして("#searchButton")
        self.テキストを確認する("アニメ", "#firstHeading")
        self.入力("#searchInput", "寿司")
        self.クリックして("#searchButton")
        self.テキストを確認する("寿司", "#firstHeading")
        self.要素を確認する('img[alt="握り寿司"]')
        self.入力("#searchInput", "レゴランド・ジャパン")
        self.クリックして("#searchButton")
        self.要素を確認する('img[alt="Legoland japan.jpg"]')
        self.リンクテキストを確認する("名古屋城")
        self.リンクテキストをクリックします("テーマパーク")
        self.テキストを確認する("テーマパーク", "#firstHeading")

(See examples/translations/japanese_test_1.py for the Japanese test.)

16. SeleniumBase in Korean

This format is similar to the English version with BaseCase inheritance, but there's a different import statement, and method names have been translated into Korean. Here's an example of that:

from seleniumbase.translate.korean import 셀레늄_테스트_케이스

class 테스트_클래스(셀레늄_테스트_케이스):
    def test_실시예_1(self):
        self.열기("https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/")
        self.텍스트_확인("위키백과")
        self.요소_확인('[title="위키백과:소개"]')
        self.입력("#searchInput", "김치")
        self.클릭("#searchButton")
        self.텍스트_확인("김치", "#firstHeading")
        self.요소_확인('img[alt="Various kimchi.jpg"]')
        self.링크_텍스트_확인("한국 요리")
        self.입력("#searchInput", "비빔밥")
        self.클릭("#searchButton")
        self.텍스트_확인("비빔밥", "#firstHeading")
        self.요소_확인('img[alt="Dolsot-bibimbap.jpg"]')
        self.링크_텍스트를_클릭합니다("돌솥비빔밥")
        self.텍스트_확인("돌솥비빔밥", "#firstHeading")

(See examples/translations/korean_test_1.py for the Korean test.)

17. SeleniumBase in Portuguese

This format is similar to the English version with BaseCase inheritance, but there's a different import statement, and method names have been translated into Portuguese. Here's an example of that:

from seleniumbase.translate.portuguese import CasoDeTeste

class MinhaClasseDeTeste(CasoDeTeste):
    def test_exemplo_1(self):
        self.abrir("https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/")
        self.verificar_texto("Wikipédia")
        self.verificar_elemento('[title="Língua portuguesa"]')
        self.digitar("#searchInput", "João Pessoa")
        self.clique("#searchButton")
        self.verificar_texto("João Pessoa", "#firstHeading")
        self.verificar_elemento('img[alt*="João Pessoa"]')
        self.digitar("#searchInput", "Florianópolis")
        self.clique("#searchButton")
        self.verificar_texto("Florianópolis", "h1#firstHeading")
        self.verificar_elemento('img[alt*="Avenida Beira Mar"]')
        self.voltar()
        self.verificar_verdade("João" in self.obter_url_atual())
        self.digitar("#searchInput", "Teatro Amazonas")
        self.clique("#searchButton")
        self.verificar_texto("Teatro Amazonas", "#firstHeading")
        self.verificar_texto_do_link("Festival Amazonas de Ópera")

(See examples/translations/portuguese_test_1.py for the Portuguese test.)

18. SeleniumBase in Russian

This format is similar to the English version with BaseCase inheritance, but there's a different import statement, and method names have been translated into Russian. Here's an example of that:

from seleniumbase.translate.russian import ТестНаСелен

class МойТестовыйКласс(ТестНаСелен):
    def test_пример_1(self):
        self.открыть("https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/")
        self.подтвердить_элемент('[title="Русский язык"]')
        self.подтвердить_текст("Википедия", "h2.main-wikimedia-header")
        self.введите("#searchInput", "МГУ")
        self.нажмите("#searchButton")
        self.подтвердить_текст("университет", "#firstHeading")
        self.подтвердить_элемент('img[alt*="Главное здание МГУ"]')
        self.введите("#searchInput", "приключения Шурика")
        self.нажмите("#searchButton")
        self.подтвердить_текст("Операция «Ы» и другие приключения Шурика")
        self.подтвердить_элемент('img[alt="Постер фильма"]')
        self.назад()
        self.подтвердить_правду("университет" in self.получить_текущий_URL())
        self.вперед()
        self.подтвердить_правду("Шурика" in self.получить_текущий_URL())

(See examples/translations/russian_test_1.py for the Russian test.)

19. SeleniumBase in Spanish

This format is similar to the English version with BaseCase inheritance, but there's a different import statement, and method names have been translated into Spanish. Here's an example of that:

from seleniumbase.translate.spanish import CasoDePrueba

class MiClaseDePrueba(CasoDePrueba):
    def test_ejemplo_1(self):
        self.abrir("https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/")
        self.verificar_texto("Wikipedia")
        self.verificar_elemento('[title*="la página principal"]')
        self.escriba("#searchInput", "Parc d'Atraccions Tibidabo")
        self.haga_clic("#searchButton")
        self.verificar_texto("Tibidabo", "#firstHeading")
        self.verificar_elemento('img[alt*="Tibidabo"]')
        self.escriba("#searchInput", "Palma de Mallorca")
        self.haga_clic("#searchButton")
        self.verificar_texto("Palma de Mallorca", "#firstHeading")
        self.verificar_elemento('img[alt*="Palma"]')
        self.volver()
        self.verificar_verdad("Tibidabo" in self.obtener_url_actual())
        self.adelante()
        self.verificar_verdad("Mallorca" in self.obtener_url_actual())

(See examples/translations/spanish_test_1.py for the Spanish test.)

20. Behave-BDD Gherkin tests that use SeleniumBase

With Behave's BDD Gherkin format, you can use natural language to write tests that work with SeleniumBase methods. Behave tests are run by calling behave on the command-line. This requires some special files in a specific directory structure. Here's an example of that structure:

features/
├── __init__.py
├── behave.ini
├── environment.py
├── feature_file.feature
└── steps/
    ├── __init__.py
    ├── imported.py
    └── step_file.py

A *.feature file might look like this:

Feature: SeleniumBase scenarios for the RealWorld App

  Scenario: Verify RealWorld App (log in / sign out)
    Given Open "seleniumbase.io/realworld/login"
    And Clear Session Storage
    When Type "demo_user" into "#username"
    And Type "secret_pass" into "#password"
    And Do MFA "GAXG2MTEOR3DMMDG" into "#totpcode"
    Then Assert exact text "Welcome!" in "h1"
    And Highlight "img#image1"
    And Click 'a:contains("This Page")'
    And Save screenshot to logs
    When Click link "Sign out"
    Then Assert element 'a:contains("Sign in")'
    And Assert text "You have been signed out!"

(From examples/behave_bdd/features/realworld.feature)

You'll need the environment.py file for tests to work. Here it is:

from seleniumbase import BaseCase
from seleniumbase.behave import behave_sb
behave_sb.set_base_class(BaseCase)  # Accepts a BaseCase subclass
from seleniumbase.behave.behave_sb import before_all  # noqa
from seleniumbase.behave.behave_sb import before_feature  # noqa
from seleniumbase.behave.behave_sb import before_scenario  # noqa
from seleniumbase.behave.behave_sb import before_step  # noqa
from seleniumbase.behave.behave_sb import after_step  # noqa
from seleniumbase.behave.behave_sb import after_scenario  # noqa
from seleniumbase.behave.behave_sb import after_feature  # noqa
from seleniumbase.behave.behave_sb import after_all  # noqa

(From examples/behave_bdd/features/environment.py)

Inside that file, you can use BaseCase (or a subclass) for the inherited class.

For your behave tests to have access to SeleniumBase Behave steps, you can create an imported.py file with the following line:

from seleniumbase.behave import steps  # noqa

That will allow you to use lines like this in your *.feature files:

Feature: SeleniumBase scenarios for the RealWorld App

  Scenario: Verify RealWorld App (log in / sign out)
    Given Open "seleniumbase.io/realworld/login"
    And Clear Session Storage
    When Type "demo_user" into "#username"
    And Type "secret_pass" into "#password"
    And Do MFA "GAXG2MTEOR3DMMDG" into "#totpcode"
    Then Assert exact text "Welcome!" in "h1"
    And Highlight "img#image1"
    And Click 'a:contains("This Page")'
    And Save screenshot to logs

You can also create your own step files (eg. step_file.py):

from behave import step

@step("Open the Swag Labs Login Page")
def go_to_swag_labs(context):
    sb = context.sb
    sb.open("https://www.saucedemo.com")
    sb.clear_local_storage()

@step("Login to Swag Labs with {user}")
def login_to_swag_labs(context, user):
    sb = context.sb
    sb.type("#user-name", user)
    sb.type("#password", "secret_sauce\n")

(For more information, see the SeleniumBase Behave BDD ReadMe.)


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